Censorship Resistance

Free Speech, Expression, Assembly, Association for All Humanity

1M5 is at its core a mission to ensure free speech, expression, association, and assembly.

When the Berlin wall was opened in November 1989, expectations of a more open human society sprang forward. Yet several decades later we are experiencing digital walls being raised by governments and large corporations in the name of protection. These walls promote segregation and censorship of information having a negative effect on creativity, innovative technology, and freedom of speech, expression, association, and assembly.

Freedom of Speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction. The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used.

Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities or by community consensus.

Constraining the free flow of information between people is a direct threat to our freedom and censorship of communications on-line is growing world-wide.

On-line communications are censored at the point of entrance by Internet Service Providers (ISP). They act as gateways to the internet providing governments control over speech by having the ability to restrict usage and track people's usage via their leased IP addresses. In order to make tracking usage much more difficult, tools have come out that provide techniques called onion-/garlic-routing where the source and destinations of internet routes can not be determined without breaking encryption, a very expensive feat, sometimes impossible today when considering the encryption algorithms used.

Many governments are using IP (Internet Protocol) geo-fencing (e.g. China’s Great Firewall) to isolate people from global information and mass surveillance (e.g. US’ NSA Prism and China’s Social Credit System) to increase self-censorship. These systems are now being replicated by many other governments world-wide and governments are working together to oppress the masses globally (e.g. Five/Fourteen Eyes).

Privacy, the bedrock of freedom, is being lost at an alarming rate and few know how to maintain it today. Most large organizations (e.g. tech giants, the banking industry, governments) track, persist, and use our behavior for their profit not ours. Whistleblowers, the abused, visible minorities, and a myriad of other people could be emboldened by anonymity to speak out in a manner that would otherwise be unavailable if they were forced to identify themselves. Decentralized applications like Bitcoin are helping to wrestle some control from centralized organizations although they are difficult to maintain anonymity at the network layer. Smartphones, our primary means of global communication and collaboration, are weak in maintaining our anonymity and privacy - critical to ensuring individual freedom.

Two primary tools today that support this are Tor and I2P. Tor provides a browser that makes it easier to use while I2P is much less known. Both are complementary in that Tor was designed for browsing today's current web sites anonymously. I2P was designed for peer-to-peer communications within I2P. Neither have good APIs for developers to embed in their products making uptake slow for many applications.

A third tool on the horizon is one that completely circumvents ISPs by not using them. They're called direct wireless ad-hoc networks and they can communicate directly device-to-device (no intermediate routers) using technologies such as WiFi Direct. Firechat is an example used during the 2014 Hong Kong protests after the Chinese government threatened to shutdown the internet in that area. Mesh solutions are popping up that seek to improve on earlier designs but typically do not include ensuring anonymity.

Even getting these technologies in wide use doesn't solve the problem of online censorship. People in governments, corporations, and other thieves are constantly finding ways to circumvent these technologies to censor and steal information. People in goverment are creating laws in an attempt to threaten people into opening up the software often resulting in breaking their own laws. You become a felon either way!

Tech-savvy people can always find a way to bypass censorship and maintain privacy, but the overwhelming majority can not thus preventing a critical mass to make positive change on a political level globally. What’s needed is to bring censorship resistance and data privacy to this overwhelming majority so that all people are not only able to become free, but that they can remain so.

What's our core beliefs that drive us?

EVERYONE, including criminals and unethical people, have a natural right to Freedom of Speech, Expression, Association, and Assembly

All relationships must be voluntary

Privacy is the bedrock of freedom - we should be able to communicate as we please privately - anonymity as a base

Transparency in code/governance

We own our data and should be the ones that profit from it

Self-sovereign identity – people must establish and maintain their own identities, not by 3rd parties

Self-sovereign money – people must be their own bank indebted to no one with the keys to their money


Maneuvering Conditions

The primary threats to freedom of speech/expression/assembly/association are governments but other entities commonly engage in it such as corporate based media. 1M5 dynamically works to maintain uncensored communications for applications using it by maneuvering against blocks and attacks on the internet and direct mesh networks. This maneuvering experiences varying levels of situational conditions called MANCON.

MANCON is similar to the United States Armed Force's DEFCON. It is an alert state signalling the maneuvering required to achieve the mission. It can change at any time in response to new conditions arising. The base MANCON for a claimed jurisdiction is largely based on the Press Freedom Index.

  • 5 = Good Situation
  • 4 = Satisfactory Situation
  • 3 = Noticeable Problems
  • 2 = Difficult Situation
  • 1 = Very Serious Situation

The following MANCONs provide a description, 1M5's default response, and a list of lower to greater threats within that MANCON.


Little Extra Security Needed - standard use of HTTPS based browsers is supported with strong privacy laws enforced and little to no control over nor monitoring of the internet.

Communications to web services using Tor/HTTPS and to individuals using I2P

Norway, Switzerland, Jamaica, Costa Rica, Austria, Iceland, Portugal, Germany, Ireland, Greenland


Low Security - normal censorship attempts by states on reading news with public web sites getting blocked and/or government shutdown of cloud cdn content. Freedom of expression laws could be limited or partially enforced / corrupted by corporations. Tor hidden services should be offered so that people can still read news using Tor Browser when necessary.

1M5 Nodes running as Tor Hidden Services

New Zealand, Canada, Australia, South Africa, Spain, France, England, South Korea, United States, Italy, Belize


Medium Security - Tor network being attacked. Likely no Freedom of Expression laws or not enforced. I2P hidden services should be offered.

1M5 Nodes running as I2P EEP Sites

Nicaragua, Panama, Guatemala, Afghanistan, United Arab Emirates, Palestine, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Venezuela, Russia


Medium-High Security - I2P hidden services getting attacked/targeted. Actual threats and prison time for speaking out. Pure decentralized news over I2P is required.

All communications including news over I2P purely P2P with random delays for highly sensitive information. Purism hardware recommended.

Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Cuba


Highest of Security - Internet access getting shutdown in areas. Strong censorship attempts with massive number of nodes blocked, deep packet inspections across internet, and/or I2P timing/DDOS attacks. People getting murdered for speaking out. Absolutely no freedom of expression protections.

Neo routing using Direct Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks and I2P with high delays running on Purism Libre Mobile and Laptops.

Sudan, Vietnam, China, Syria, Turkmenistan, Eritrea, North Korea


Application Features

Censorship Resistant Routing

The first layer in a secure highly network-based application must be a layer supporting anonymity. This is accomplished in 1M5 by using I2P, Invisible Internet Project, as the basis for routing over the internet, direct wireless ad-hoc networks like 1DM when the internet is not accessible, and Tor for communicating with non-anonymous nodes in the clearnet like Bitcoin nodes. This routing is managed intelligently using a peer graph across all supported anonymous networks.


The Onion Router (TOR) - free software and an open network that helps you defend against traffic analysis, a form of network surveillance that threatens personal freedom and privacy. It routes messages through intermediary nodes using layers of encryption so that no node can determine the source of a request (onion routing).


The Invisible Internet Project - an anonymous overlay network - a network within a network. It is intended to protect communication from dragnet surveillance and monitoring by third parties such as ISPs. Used by many people who care about their privacy: activists, oppressed people, journalists and whistleblowers, as well as the average person, it routes messages through intermediary nodes using layers of encryption so that no node can determine the source nor the destination of a message. Multiple messages can be combined or split mid-route (garlic routing).

Decentralized IDentifier

Pluggable, decentralized, people and/or automation-controlled universal ID, called DID or Decentralized IDentifier. Its primary components are:
Crypto Authentication (CA)
Reputation Based Access Control (RepBAC)
Circles of Influence

Key Ring

Maintaining encryption and signing keys secure.

Info Vault

The platform allows for the user to grant access control to their personal information on their device if desired. Access can be revoked when its no longer desired for them to have it. Applications no longer need to know everything about you. This will end widespread data breaches.

Prana - User Coins

Coins used in the platform as a method to manage resources (network, cpu, storage) to support it. (Future)

Aten - Distribution Coins

Coins used in the platform as a method to determine transaction fee distribution paid in Prana. (Future)


Current / In Progress

Decentralized Cloud

An anonymous decentralized censorship-resistant content-hosting solution.


Making journalism truly free.


Private censorship-resistant messenger for Librem line of laptops and phones.


Censor Resistant Internet Project - View any web page on the internet from any location without fear of anyone knowing using standard browsers.

Future Projects
Many ideas are on the drawing board to decentralize many of the main applications in use by mainstream today.

Voluntary Markets

  • An anonymous decentralized voluntary marketplace
  • It will aim to bring buyers and sellers together online anonymously if desired or with reputable identities when both parties desire it.
  • To prevent the site from being involved in any activity involving aggression, all descriptions of what is being sold must be approved to not be involved in aggression by a number of random high reputation peers yet without knowledge of either party's identity.
  • Judgements can be escalated to a board.
  • Too many failed escalations can result in auto-rejection of future escalation requests.
  • Too many overridden judgements can result in lowering of reputation within 460R4 to where you can no longer be a judge.
  • All money exchanged using Bitcoin via 1M5 (Tor, I2P, 1DM).

Open Private Communications for Humanity

  • An anonymous decentralized social media application.
  • Initially expected to start as a minimal messenger.
  • Communications are run through 1M5 using I2P with fallback onto 1DM when the internet is blocked locally.
  • Long-term idea is to combine email, messaging, photo-sharing, video streaming, and short messages into one platform.
  • Far more censorship resistant and private than anything out there.

Decentralized Ride Sharing

  • Think Uber/Lyft except 90% of the fair goes to the driver and 10% to decentralized application development teams, a massive improvement over the current ride sharing corporations.
  • No corporation behind it so it can not be subpoenaed nor regulated by unethical corrupt laws maintaining crony interests.
  • All transactions in Bitcoin over 1M5 (Tor, I2P, 1DM).
  • Just set up a start and end destination, dates/times, number of spots, who you are including links to social/reputation links, price, deposit, and any terms.
  • Riders request a spot, are evaluated based on their social/reputation links, and put up the deposit.
  • Riders and Drivers both can write a review on each other afterwards.
  • App automatically signs their identity keys based on results (Web of Trust).

Decentralized Personal Lodging

  • Think AirBnB except 90% of the fair goes to the host and 10% to decentralized application development teams, a massive improvement over the current hosting corporations.
  • No corporation behind it so it can not be subpoenaed nor regulated by unethical corrupt laws maintaining crony interests.
  • All transactions in Bitcoin over 1M5 (Tor, I2P, 1DM).
  • Just set up date availabilities, who you are including links to social/reputation links, price, deposit, and any terms.
  • Guests request a spot, are evaluated based on their social/reputation links, and put up the deposit.
  • Hosts and Guests both can write a review on each other afterwards.
  • App automatically signs their identity keys based on results (Web of Trust).


1M5's roadmap is driven by the needs of the community supporting it. Those solutions are in descending order of priority below with prioritization based on developer availability which are likely dependent on donations. The following are each solution's needs and expected delivery dates.

Inkrypt Decentralized Cloud

  • DID, KeyRing: OpenPGP self-sovereign identity w/ flash drives: Minimal
  • I2P: P2P anonymity: Done
  • Tor: clearnet anonymity: Done
  • Monetization: 1st Half
  • Public content dissemination to clearnet content providers: 2nd Half

2019 Mid: Testnet launch
2019 EOY: Mainnet launch

Inkrypt nLightn

  • DID, KeyRing: OpenPGP self-sovereign identity w/ flash drives: Minimal
  • I2P: P2P anonymity: Done
  • Tor: clearnet anonymity: Done
  • Monetization: 1st Half
  • Public article dissemination to clearnet content providers: 2nd Half

2019 Mid: Field/Testnet Testing
2019 EOY: Mainnet Testing

Purism Chatty

  • DID, KeyRing: OpenPGP self-sovereign identity w/ flash drives: Minimal
  • I2P: P2P anonymity: Done
  • Integration: 1st Half

2019 1st Half: Integration
2019 EOY: Release


  • DID, KeyRing: OpenPGP self-sovereign identity w/ flash drives: Minimal
  • I2P: P2P anonymity: Done
  • Tor: clearnet anonymity: Done
  • Proxy: daemon: 1st Qtr

2019 1st Half: Daemon
2019 Mid Year: Release


We are a small group of voluntary contributors to 1M5 working towards developing the mission and the software that implements it, some public some anonymous. Many responsibilities are currently being lead by too few people so we are always looking for passionate people to lead and assist.

objectorange (Brian Taylor)
PGP: DD08 8658 5380 C7DF 1B4E 04C2 1849 B798 CF36 E2AF

evok3d (Amin Rafiee)
PGP: D921 C2EE 60BA C264 EA40 4DC5 B6F8 2589 96AA E505


Birds of a Feather

With 1M5 integrated into your applications, your anonymity and privacy appear to be finally under your control, no longer being under mass unethical surveillance by unchecked governments and large corporations. Until you find out the operating system can bypass application security. Picking an Operating System for 1M5 and other applications to run in is crucial. Closed source operating systems like Windows and Macintosh just don't cut it. It's impossible to know what's in the source code as the code is maintained as a secret and legal non-disclosure agreements are used to enforce secrecy gagging those few with the knowledge. Linux is by far the winner here and there are many flavors. But when looking at a secure open source operating system, we want to know there is a group actively working to constantly combat attackers. So then you might wonder, 'does the rabbit hole go deeper'? Yes, the whole stack from physical metal up is under attack by governments, corporations, and thieves worldwide. And there's no one in our corner.

Until you meet Purism. Purism is working down the stack with hardware and driver manufacturers to claw back our right to privacy. We recommend buying all of your general-purpose laptops and phones from this organization.

The Anonymous, Decentralized Cloud - As anonymous and untraceable as ink & parchment, Inkrypt grants the unstoppable power of a distributed network to users combating censorship and data security concerns.

Inkrypt is an anonymous, decentralized content-hosting solution that provides censorship resistance. At its very core, the Inkrypt project is about one thing: freedom. The current centralized internet architecture is prone to censorship, breach and latency, and nations all over the globe use these shortcomings to censor content.

Inkrypt is a global network of storage and distribution nodes coupled with anonymized nodal communications, forming the underlying hosting layer for a censorship-resistant and secure ecosystem. Anyone is able to become a node operator and be compensated for resources staked to the network.

Furthermore, anyone can build dApps on top of and integrations with the Inkrypt network for their unique use cases to create increased value for all stakeholders in the ecosystem.


Contribute to 1M5

1M5 is an open source project powered by volunteers, bounties, and donations. In the spirit of open source and censorship resistance, we have opted to create 1M5 without the demands or influence of investors nor governments. Each of us is involved in the project because we personally believe in it! This is not just another decentralized startup, this is a project aiming to be driven by the global community and serving the global community.

There are a few ways you can help support 1M5:



If you’re reading this then you probably have the skills that would really help 1M5 build and grow. We are constantly looking for skilled volunteers who can help us with the development of 1M5 and spread the word to the wider decentralization community. If you wish to communicate anonymously, we have a 1M5 channel on I2P's IRC. Leave a message and we will get back to you ASAP. As for as email goes, we prefer communications using I2P first and protonmail.com second.

We have two tracks: Administrative and Development. Administrative includes donation management, public relations, marketing, product management, blogging, graphic design, and web site development. Development includes architecture, technology research, integration, cryptology, software engineering, and programming. People usually belong to either group but may belong to both, especially when there are few people involved.

For development, 1M5 needs development leads for each component on GitHub. Current priorities are Tor and 1DM (direct mesh network). This can and will likely change with solution prioritization. Most components are in Java, so if you have experience with Java and interested in supporting the 1M5 mission, please contact us below and let us know!



We set up bounties for development tasks as funds come in. You can either support an existing bounty by donating to the bounty address or set up your own bounty for a feature you would love to see get implemented in 1M5.

Please check out our GitHub issues for more information.



By donating Bitcoin to our donation wallet, you will be helping 1M5 pay for our direct costs like web hosting, domain names, outsourced work, bounties, and so on. So if you support this project and are in a position to help us out then that would be wonderful. If you wish to support us anonymously, we recommend using Bisq as it uses Tor and using a source of Bitcoin that doesn't have your identity attached to it.

Note: Donations to 1M5 are not tax deductible as we are not formally registered in any jurisdiction.

Please don’t hesitate to get in touch if you can think of other ways you can help with the 1M5 project.